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作者:深圳教育在线 来源:szedu.net 更新日期:2007-12-12 阅读次数:

Unit 21

As colleges and universities send another wave of graduates out into the world this spring, thousands of other job seekers with liberal-arts degrees like Martin's find themselves in a similar bind. True enough, this is an era of record-breaking lows in unemployment. But technology companies, which are contributing the lion's share of new jobs, are simultaneously declaring a shortage of qualified workers. The emphasis is on the word qualified.
It's no surprise that high-tech companies rarely hire liberal-arts graduates. "Our p.r. people, our marketers, even our attorneys have technical talent," says Tracy Koon, director of corporate affairs at Intel. The need for technical expertise is so pervasive that even retailers are demanding such skills. "Company-wide, we're looking for students with specific information-systems skills," says David McDearmon, director of field human resources at Dollar Tree Stores. "Typically we shy away from independent-college students who don't have them."
Fortunately for Martin, some invaluable help was at hand when he needed it. The Virginia Foundation for Independent Colleges, a network of 15 liberal-arts colleges in the state, has teamed up with local companies to bridge the learning gap faced by its members' graduates. VFIC invited 30 companies, including First Union and Electronic Data Systems, to link the needs of businesses with the skills being taught in college classrooms. With grants from corporate sponsors like AT&T, VFIC asked 20 information-technology managers to help its members create an exam, based on the work students will be expected to do in the real world, to test and certify their technological proficiency.
The result, Tek.Xam, is an eight-part test that requires students to design a website, build and analyze spreadsheets, research problems on the Internet and demonstrate understanding of legal and ethical issues. Says Linda Dalch, president of VFIC: "If an art-history major wants a job at a bank, he needs to prove he has the skills. That's where this credential can help." This year 245 students at VFIC's member colleges have gone through the program. The long-term hope is that Tek.Xam will win the same kind of acceptance as the LSAT or CPA for law or accounting students. "To know a student has taken the initiative and passed could mean that less training is needed," explains John Rudin, chief information officer at Reynolds Metals, one of the corporations that helped create the test.
All this begs an important question: Has the traditional liberal-arts curriculum become obsolete? College presidents naturally argue that the skills their schools provide are invaluable. A B.A. degree, says Mary Brown Bullock of Atlanta's Agnes Scott College, "gives graduates the ability to reinvent themselves time and time again...and the knowledge and thinking skills that transcend a particular discipline or time frame."
Martin is finding that to be the truth. "It would be nice to have computer classes on my transcript," he says, but Tek.Xam has armed him with the power to learn those skills on his own--and a credential to show he has done so. He's now waiting to hear when his job as a network-support assistant for a large Boston firm will start.
注(1):文选自Time;05/17/99, p92H;
注(2):本文习题命题模仿对象为2002年真题text 3;
1.       The main problem many liberal-arts students face in job seeking is ____________.
[A] too much competition in job market
[B] their lack of technical expertise
[C] company’s discrimination against liberal-arts students
[D] the recording-breaking unemployment rate
2.       It can be inferred from the text that _____________.
[A] in the modern era, technical talent means everything in securing a job
[B] independent colleges are not giving their students proper educationt
[C] retailers are following the fashion only to promote sales
[D] there is a big demand for students with technical skills
3.       Tek-Xam is designed to _____________.
[A] offer VFIC members’ graduates more job opportunities
[B] compete with LSAT and CPA
[C] help students cope with real world problems
[D] test students’ technical skills
4.       We can draw a conclusion from the text that ____________.
[A] liberal arts education still proves valuable to students
[B] Tek-Xam is gaining wide acceptance among employers and students alike
[C] Technology companies are eager to promote Tek-Xam
[D] computer classes will be excluded from the curriculum of liberal-arts students
5.       From the text we can see that the writer seems____________.
[A] positive
[B] suspicious
[C] pessimistic
[D] disapproving
答案:B D D A A
bind: [baind] n困扰;困境
lion’s share: 最大或最好的部分
pervasive: [pE:5veisiv] adj. 遍布的;普遍的
shy: [Fai] v. (常与away from, at连用)躲避,退避
proficiency: [prE5fiFEnsi] n. 熟练, 精通, 熟练程度
spreadsheet: [5spred5Fi:t] n. [计] 电子制表软件, 电子数据表
credential: [kri5denFEl] n.文凭;凭证;证书
initiative:[ i5niFiEtiv] n. 主动
obsolete: [5CbsEli:t] adj. 废弃的;过时的
discipline: [5disiplin] n. 学科
transcript: [5trAnskript] n. 成绩单
But technology companies, which are contributing the lion’s share of new jobs, are simultaneously declaring a shortage of qualified workers.
主体句式:But technology companies… are declaring a shortage…
结构分析:这一句句子结构并不算复杂,只包含一个非限定性定语从句,但其中用到的表达“the lion’s share”可能不太容易被理解。“the lion’s share”意味“最大或最好的部分”。
1. 答案是B属于事实细节题。从文章第一段和第二段的内容可知,技术公司的用人需求最大,但却缺少合格的员工。在市场上,the need for technical expertise is pervasive。而很多公司不愿意要文科生的原因是“they don’t have them”,他们因缺少技能而难以找到工作。
2. 答案是D属于判断推理题。文章第二段提到对技术知识的需求如此普遍,连零售商都要求员工具有这种技能。由此可见,D是正确答案。
3. 答案是D属于事实细节题。文章第三段最后一行提到设立这一考试目的是“to test and certify their technological proficiency”,所以应选择D。
4. 答案是A属于推理判断题。从文章第五段引用大学校长的话,以及马丁的例子可以推知,文科教育仍然很有价值。
5. 答案是A属于推理判断题。作者的态度可以从作者的选材角度判断出来。本文提到了Tek Xam这种考试设立的背景,考试的前景以及他带给参加考试者的积极变化。由此可见,作者对这种考试是持肯定态度的。
高技术公司很少雇用文科毕业生这不足为奇。“我们的公关人员,市场营销人员,甚至律师都有技术才能,”英特尔公司企业事务部主管特雷茜·库恩说。对于技术专长的需求非常普遍,连零售商都要求具有这种技能。“我们公司各个部门都需要掌握一定信息系统技术的毕业生,”美元树(Dollar Tree Stores)的人力资源总监大卫·麦克德蒙说。“一般我们都不会聘用那些没有这些技能的独立学院毕业生。”
“技术考试”(Tek Xam)由此诞生。它分为八个部分,要求学生设计网站,建立和分析电子数据表,在互联网上调查和研究问题以及证明自己对法律和伦理问题的理解等。VFIC的负责人琳达·戴奇说:“如果一个艺术史专业的学生想得到一份银行的工作,他就要证明自己有这方面的技能。这个证书就是要在这方面帮助他。”今年VFIC成员学校的245名学生参加了这一考试。今后“技术考试”也许能够像法律专业学生参加的“法学院入学考试”(LSAT)和会计专业学生参加的“注册会计师考试”(CPA)一样推广开来。“如果某个学生主动参加并且通过了这个考试,那么也就意味着他需要接受的培训相应减少了,”雷诺兹金属公司的信息主管约翰·鲁丁说到。雷诺兹金属公司也参加了创立这一考试的工作。

Unit 22

Plowing through the New York Times on a recent Sunday, I read in the Metro Section that infertile couples in the market for smart-kid genes regularly place advertisements in the newspapers of their own Ivy League alma maters offering female undergraduates $7,500 for a donated egg. Before I could get that news comfortably digested, I came across an article in the Magazine section describing SAT prep courses for which parents spend thousands in the hope of raising their child's test scores enough to make admission to an Ivy League college possible. So how can people who have found a potential egg donor at an Ivy League college tell whether the donor carries genuine smart-kid genes or just pushy-parents genes?
The donor herself may not even be aware that such a distinction exists. After years of expensive private schooling and math tutors and tennis camps and SAT prep courses and letters of recommendation from important family friends, she's been told that, unlike beneficiaries of affirmative action, she got into an Ivy League college on pure merit.
Since it is probably safe to assume that people intent on securing high-priced Ivy League eggs are carrying some pushy-parents genes themselves, their joining forces with a donor who got into an Ivy League college by dint of her family's willingness to fork over 10 grand to an SAT prep course could result in a child with somewhere between a dose and a half and 2 1/2 doses of pushy-parents genes. Apparently the egg seekers aren't troubled by the prospect of having their grandchildren raised by this sort of person.
If you have any doubts about whether the dosages I cite are based on a thorough grounding in genetics and statistics and advanced microbiology, rest assured that I attended an Ivy League college myself. That was in the days, I'll admit, when any number of people were admitted to such institutions without having shown any evidence of carrying smart-kid genes even in trace elements. Somehow, most of these dimmer bulbs managed to graduate--every class needs a lower third in order to have an upper two-thirds--and somehow most of them are now millionaires on Wall Street.
One element many of them had going for them in the admissions process was that they were identified as "legacies"--the offspring of alumni. In Ivy League colleges, alumni children are even now admitted at twice the rate of other applicants. For that reason, egg seekers may not actually need genuine smart-kid genes for their children: after all, an applicant whose mother and father and egg donor were all alumni could be considered a triple legacy.
But how about the college-admission prospects of the grandchildren? As methods are perfected of enhancing a college application through increasingly expensive services--one young man mentioned in the magazine article had $25,000 worth of SAT preparation--it might become more important to have a parent who's a Wall Street millionaire than to have smart-kid genes. Maybe it would be prudent to add a sentence to those ads in college papers: "Preference given to respondents in the lower third of the class."
注(1):本文选自Time;01/25/99, p20;
注(2):本文习题命题模仿对象为:1、2、3题模仿2000年真题text4 1-3题;4、5题分别模仿1999年真题text1第4题和text4第4题;
1.       In the author’s eyes, a female student from an Ivy League college is__________.
[A] an ideal egg donor
[B] not necessarily an intelligent person
[C] more influenced by her parents than by anything else
[D] more likely to carry smart-kid genes
2.       According to the author, what may chiefly be the reason for the donor’s admission in an
Ivy League college?
[A] her own merits
[B] the affirmative action
[C] her smart-kid genes
[D] her parents’ efforts
3.       Which of the following is true according to the author?
[A] American parents would send their children into an Ivy League college at any cost
[B] Ivy League colleges used to admit students who showed no sign of intelligence
[C] alumni children stand a better chance to be admitted than other applicants
[D]egg-seekers care nothing about the pushy-parents genes
4.       The author’s attitude towards the issue seems to be ____________.
[A] approving
[B] objective
[C] indifferent
[D] ironic
5.       It could be inferred from the text that____________.
[A] wealth is more important than intelligence in application for Ivy League colleges
[B] Ivy League colleges are increasingly expensive
[C] egg-seekers can get better genes from millionaires
[D] the prospects of college-admission are gloomy
答案:B D C D A
SAT: (美国)学术能力测验(Scholastic Aptitude Test)
admission: [Ed5miFEn] n. 许可入场;入学、入会
pushy: [5pJFI] adj. 有进取心的
affirmative action: 平权措施,指美国大学在录取新生和分配奖学金时,在成绩相同或相近的条件下优先考虑少数族裔的学生,如非洲裔、西班牙裔和印第安裔考生。
dint: [dint] n. 力量,努力;权力 by dint of 由于;凭藉
fork over: 花费,为…投入金钱
trace element: 微量元素
alumni: [E5lQmnai] n. 校友
prudent: [5pru:dEnt] adj. 谨慎的;明智的
1.Since it is probably safe to assume that people intent on securing high-priced Ivy League eggs are carrying some pushy-parents genes themselves, their joining forces with a donor who got into an Ivy League college by dint of her family’s willingness to fork over 10 grand to an SAT prep course could result in a child with somewhere between a dose and a half and 2 1/2 doses of push-parents genes.
主体句式:their joining forces…could result in a child…
结构分析:本句是个复杂长句,首先由since引导一个原因状语从句,在这个从句里又包含了一个宾语从句(assume后面that引导的部分),一个较长的定语(intent on securing high-priced Ivy League eggs),主句的主语是一个较长的动名词短语,其中包含了一个定语从句(who引导的部分),而这个定语从句中还含有一个较长的状语(由介词词组by dint of引导),主句的宾语里也包含有一个由介词with引导的长定语。在阅读的时候,一定要先理清主次,然后把各部发之间的修饰,限定等关系看清楚,才不至于出错。
句子译文:也许可以安全地假定那些想要获得高价常青藤联盟卵子的人自己身上就带有要强的家长的基因,他们和那些靠家庭心甘情愿花1万美元参加SAT考前辅导班而进入常青藤联盟学校的捐卵者联合,其结果也许就是生出的孩子身上的要强父母基因剂量介于1.5至2.5之间 。
2.As methods are perfected of enhancing a college application through increasingly expensive services---one young man mentioned in the magazine article had $25,000 worth of SAT preparation---it might become more important to have a parent who’s a Wall Street millionaire than to have smart-kid genes.
主体句式:it might become more important to have a parent…
结构分析:本句也是一个复杂长句。as引导一个较长的原因状语从句,其中还含有一个插入语,对increasingly expensive进行实例说明,从句中的时态为被动,主语method的定语修饰成分(of引导的部分)因为过长而被后置到谓语之后;主句是以it做形式主语,两个被比较的不定式做为真正主语的结构。
1. 答案为B属于推理判断题。作者在第一段提出疑问:how can people…tell whether the donor carries genuine smart-kid genes or just pushy-parents genes? 接着又在下文中分析这些学生是如何入学的:父母不惜重金的栽培以及父母为校友的优势。文中第二段末作者以讽刺的口吻说道:they were told…they got into an Ivy League college on pure merit。文中第四段作者以那些后来成为百万富翁的差生来说明名校的学生未必聪明。可见作者并不认为那些名校女生真的是因为聪明智慧而被录取的。
2. 答案为D属于事实细节题。文章举了很多例子说明捐卵者的家庭为她们进入常青藤联盟学校所作的一切:多年的昂贵私立学校教育,数学辅导,网球训练营,不惜重金的SAT考前辅导班,有身分地位的家庭友人的推荐信以及父母的校友身份等。可见D为最佳答案。
3. 答案为C属于事实细节题。文章第5段提到了校友子女的录取比例是其他申请人的两倍,可见他们的被录取机会较大。
4. 答案为D属于推理判断题。作者通过分析举例来说明高价求购名校女生卵子做法的荒谬之处,并在文章最后写道:应该在这类求卵广告上加一句“差生应征,优先考虑”,语气中充满讽刺意味,应该选D。
5. 答案为A属于推理判断题。作者在文章最后一段指出:“methods are perfected of enhancing a college application through increasingly expensive service”在下文中又说:“it might become more important to have a parent who’s a Wall Street millionaire than to have smart-kid genes”,可见跨入名校门槛需要付出高昂代价,因此申请这些学校的时候,财富比智慧更重要。
也许可以安全地假定那些想要获得高价常青藤联盟卵子的人自己身上就带有要强的家长的基因,他们和那些靠家庭心甘情愿花1万美元参加SAT考前辅导班而进入常青藤联盟学校的捐卵者联合,其结果也许就是生出的孩子身上的要强父母基因剂量介于1.5至2.5之间 。显然,那些渴望得到卵子的人不会因为他们的孙子可能会由这种人抚养长大而烦恼。

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